Why is it not useful for cosmetic products to be tested on animals?
Cosmetics are applied dermatologically and no animal model can cover this application method, whilst useful [human] cell models can be used.
How have new methods of toxicology testing affected the way that science views the animal model as a test subject?
The focus of modern human toxicology is on human pathways and chemistry, whereas using animals introduces an element of extrapolation; rather omitted.
Is 1R the new 3Rs?
In fact I consider the 3Rs outdated as new human approaches are demanded by society and animal testing should only be done for very specific cases with whole body exposure. I do of course give the 3R work a try, and emphasise the task of educating young researchers in seeking information about animal-free research and applying this.
In your opinion, are we near to a breakthrough in the fight against animal testing?
For sensitisation and skin/eye irritation (i.e. cosmetic testing) we have reached the breakthrough, whilst long-term effects on reproduction and cancer research, in terms of animal alternatives, is not there yet.